Ateneum Philological Forum
Ateneum Philological Forum No. 1(8)2020 "Changes and Challenges"
Katarzyna Kukowicz-Żarska (Ed.), Ateneum-Szkoła Wyższa w Gdańsku
ISSN 2719-8537 (online) / ISSN 2353-2912 (print)
A point ranked journal (20 points) included in the pont ranked journals list of 9 February 2021 position 29827, and before of 18 December 2019 position 27730.
Foreword - 5–6
Lei CHUNYI, Antonio PAMIES, Shedding some light on the metaphors of light (a Spanish-Chinese linguo- cultural contrast) - 9
This paper compares Spanish and Chinese metaphoric lexical and phraseological units whose source domain is the opposition between light and shade. These units are collected, analysed and classified according to their figurative meanings. On the one hand, it is observed that several groups share the same target domains, such as FAITH vs. SIN, KNOWLEDGE vs. IGNORANCE, INTELLIGENCE vs. STUPIDITY, LEGITIMACY vs. CLANDESTINITY, and LIFE vs. DEATH among others. On the other hand, there are specific differences in the surface level of particular metaphors, but, mostly, striking coincidences at the more general level of linguo-cultural macromodels, taking into account the large linguistic and cultural gaps between the Spanish and the Chinese worlds.
The aim of the paper is to discuss theoretical assumptions as well as point out strengths and weaknesses of the communicative-pragmatic approach to foreign language teaching. The author underlines the fact that pragmatics and the theory of speech acts by J. Austin and J. Searle, which emerged under the influence of the pragmatic approach in American philosophy, sociology and semiotics, as well as the theory of language games by L. Wittgenstein, the notion of communicative competence by D. Hymes and the theory of communicative action by J. Habermas all influenced the proponents of the pragmatic-communicative approach either directly or indirectly. The implementation of these theories, however, has not always been cautious and critical enough, which is exemplified by, for instance, overemphasizing fluency and communicative efficiency over morphosyntactic accuracy of speech. In other words, changing the role of communicative competence and downgrading the significance of linguistic competence in the foreign language teaching process. The author concludes that the essence of natural languages lies in their immanent structure rather than the communicative purposes they serve.
Mariola WIERZBICKA, Zum sprachlichen Ausdruck der Simultaneität. Eine Untersuchung zum Deutschen - 59
The paper discusses ways of expressing temporal relations of simultaneity in the German language. Although the relations can be expressed by participle phrases, noun phrases, prepositional phrases and infinitive phrases, the adverbial clause is the most frequent means of expressing the relations. The temporal adverbial clause has an almost unlimited range of application, which stretches from a vaguely hinted relation to absolute necessity, and from general statements and clarifications to definite emotionally motivated utterances. Wherever there is an obvious connection between facts, events, actions, relations as well as personal will and feeling, it can be expressed by means of a temporal structure. The subject of the paper is the influence of conjunctions während, als, wenn, seit(dem) and solange on the time arrangement of situations introduced into the time clause and the main clause with regard to morphological, syntactic and semantic elements and dependence on the relation of the correspondence between events in the time clause and events in the main clause in German.
Anna BĄCZKOWSKA, Ljiljana ŠARIĆ, Identity, impoliteness and integration in online immigration discourse - 75
The paper presents an analysis of the language used on the Internet (social media) by Poles living in Norway. Emphasis is placed on identity construction, integration and impoliteness strategies. The material presented in this study was retrieved from a corpus which was collected as part of a project devoted to national identity in immigration discourse. The method of analysis presented in this paper follows Culpeper’s (1996) taxonomy of impoliteness strategies. The data under inspection illustrate several types of positive and negative impoliteness. The results of the study demonstrate that the Polish diaspora in Norway is only partially integrated and that the language Poles use while writing both about the Norwegians and, in particular, about other Poles is imbued with insults, negative associations and derogatory nominations.
In the last decade, cosmetic translation has become increasingly significant as the beauty and cosmetic industry has grown exponentially across the globe. The expansion of international cosmetic brands in many countries around the world necessitates commissioning competent, well-prepared translators, who are able to handle translation problems typical of various types of cosmetic translation, both specialized and those requiring skills specific to a more creative rendition. The main objective of this paper is to discuss a novel theoretical model of cosmetic translation competence, a type of translation which has so far not gained much popularity among translation scholars. The first part of this article offers a concise state of the art of the concept translation competence. Capitalizing on models of translation competence developed by PACTE (Process in the Acquisition of Translation Competence and Evaluation), TransComp and EMT (European Master’s in Translation), an original model of cosmetic translation competence is presented along with its sub-competencies. The second part of this article focuses on implications for teaching cosmetic translation. The paper concludes with general remarks pertaining to avenues for future research into cosmetic translation competence and its acquisition.
Michał Zbigniew DANKOWSKI, Marta JURGIELEWICZ, Narrativa populista en el pensamiento político de Evo Morales y Nicolás Maduro - 127
The beginning of the 21st century brought an increase in the importance of populist politicians in some Latin American countries. The most important representatives of contemporary Latin American populism are Evo Morales from Bolivia and Nicolás Maduro from Venezuela. The narrative used in their speeches determines the political doctrine of both presidents. Various quotes from the examined discourses, then assigned to the presented linguistic characteristics, leave no doubt that the narrative fits with populist ideas.
The paper compares the usage of singular they with two morphologically similar constructions in British and American English. The constructions in question are lose one’s life and lose one’s job. The results obtained suggest that singular they, at least used with the two constructions in focus of this work, seems to be more widely used in the American variety of English than in the British variety. An additional aim of this work is to present and discuss some practical aspects of working with mega-corpora. The work shows how and where quantitative language studies need to be accompanied by manual and qualitative investigations. The corpora used in this work are the British National Corpus (BNC) and the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA).
The subject of the article is the vocabulary of Polish criminals from the 18th century. The author reached for a press release from 1778. This press release is one of the oldest credentials of the Polish criminal jargon. The text describes a court hearing and only mentions the existence of specific communication style between villains that the court had to face. The news from “Gazeta Warszawska” contains eighteen lexemes. The author of this article discusses these words – he indicates the etymology of these jargonisms and presents a continued existence of the vocabulary in Polish (in the 19th and 20th centuries). Some remarks on the provenance of jargon terms may raise doubts among readers. The author is aware of this. However, he considers it significant to bend over the form and semantics of the accumulated vocabulary – researchers often refer to this press release from the 18th century, but do not focus on the history of the vocabulary of Polish criminals.
Katarzyna KUKOWICZ-ŻARSKA, Wartościowanie i ironia w tekście w świetle teorii aktów mowy - 181
This article focuses on the issue of valuation and the presence and role of irony in text in the light of speech act theory. The research material used for the analysis comes from the novel by Philip Kerr "March Violets", which is a representative of the historical detective novel genre. The article does not aim to criticize the book's translations, but focuses its attention on the message itself, which, through them, reaches the recipient and makes a specific impression on him/her. This specific impression, evoked by said speech acts and thoughtfully encoded in the text, is subject to the analysis here. Sociolinguistic assumptions have been adopted as the basis for these considerations, which seems to be justified in so far as language within such analytical framework can be treated as a binder among social groups, nations, communities and may play a significant role both in shaping them, shaping their collective beliefs, ideas, and cultural norms.
Rafael de la Cruz LÓPEZ-CAMPOS BODINEAU, Die Aktionsart in der deutschen Sprache: Eine kategoriale Unterteilung - 199
The aim of this paper is to review some of the fundamental concepts concerning the widely discussed controversy on the mode of action in German. Specifically, the proposal articulates the traditional categories into two basic branches (actions of state / actions of change of state) subdividing the groups into the ingressive, durative and egressive dimensions of German verbs. The whole set is completed by an additional category called “iterative” which is shown by means of grammatical devices whose nature is not necessarily verbal.
Arkadiusz JANCZYŁO, The role of repetitions in Barack Obama’s speech and its Polish translation - 227
The paper presents an analysis of Barack Obama’s first presidential victory speech and its Polish translation. The analysis focuses on loss of repetitions in translation, resulting in modified meaning and effect of the original speech in the target text. Several theoretical vehicles are employed in the paper to explain how those shifts lead to loss in translation and, hence, affect Obama’s message: overt translation, functional equivalence and loss of materiality. The main motivation behind this paper was a desire to investigate ways in which the purpose that political discourse serves in the original language and socio-political context is handled in translation and to what ends.
Eduardo de ÁGREDA COSO, El modo verbal y las estructuras dialógicas asociadas a la pragmática como recurso dramatúrgico - 241
Dialogue and pragmatics are two widely connected spheres. On many occasions, they are interrelated in the creation of real discourse. Several of the structures most closely linked to the dialogic mode or dialogue are analysed in order to study their relationship with pragmatic definitions. Finally, the search for these exponents is broadened in some current plays written in the Spanish language, defining their type of use both in following up on pragmatic recommendations and in contesting them; as well as the analysis of these items as a dramaturgical resource.
Individualism is today a part of the American identity. Due to the short history of the U.S. the American people were in need to create their own customs and traditions. That is why there are manifold philosophical and political writings involving the characteristics of an American and views on ideal versions of the young country. However different those views may be, there are motifs that repeatedly occur over time and individualism is one of the most popular themes. This research discusses the involvement of two representatives of the Transcendental Movement in the U.S., Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, in the formation of American ethos. The study is based on the analysis of the essay "Self-Reliance" by Emerson and fragments of Thoreau's book Walden and his essay "Civil Disobedience". Not only is the substance of the texts is analysed, but also the vocabulary choices and their possible consequences.
Svitlana MATVIEIEVA, Nataliya LEMISH, Terminological Aspects of a cognitive Structure REFUGEE / БІЖЕНЕЦЬ in modern legal Discourse - 287
The article deals with the cognition-defined approaches to understanding terms as complex structures enabling the conceptualization and verbalization of fragments of the worldview of professional social groups. The authors discuss aspects of the terminological meaning of the cognitive structure of REFUGEE / БІЖЕНЕЦЬ in the English and Ukrainian languages, the transformation of the meaning of modern legal terms and the evolution of their legal interpretation, as well as analyse historical and social grounds for such changes. Special attention is paid to the lexical item’s thesaurus links in the legal professional discourse which provide for the verbalization of the term in specific communicative situations.
Marta BIAŁEK, (Un)translatability. Onomastics in Olga Tokarczuk’s Primeval and Other Times - 299
Translating culture-specific elements proves to be a challenging task, obliging the translator to refer to his/her extratextual knowledge. Such a necessity is especially noticeable in the case of onomastics which constitutes a vital part of Olga Tokarczuk’s novel Primeval and Other Times. Its English translator, Antonia Lloyd-Jones, decided to adopt only a few of translation strategies for proper nouns specified by Andrew Chesterman, which in most instances bereft the source text of its complexity.
In everyday practice, the university has a task of shaping the intellect and developing the mental culture of students. The creative and active character of a person's personality is manifested and shaped in the process of exteriorization and expression. Based on the concept of language and thinking, attention should be paid to the particular importance of verbal expression. The basis here is the hypothesis that thought is realized in a word. As we develop a language, we also increase opportunities for externalization and improvement of thought. The article emphasizes values of verbal expression and its role in the personal experience and assimilation of the world, in shaping creative attitudes. The author recommends linking creative work of neophilology students to the mastery of a foreign language with the formation of their intellect and humanistic attitudes. Such conditions enabling, on the one hand, the improvement and enrichment of language skills and, on the other hand, free expression of one's thoughts are created by learning based on the technique of free text developed by French educator C. Freinet. The article shows how the technique of free text can not only be an auxiliary element, but can become a starting point and crucial issue in the work on the practical mastery of a foreign language and intellectual development of students, as well as how to anchor the improvement of language skills in intelligence, dynamics and expression of future language teachers.
Anna KULIŃSKA, Students’ motivation in distant education - 325
Students’ motivation directly influences their involvement in learning and the results they achieve. The teaching-learning process should include activities that address not only extrinsic factors, but also strengthen students’ intrinsic motivation, and reflect the dynamic character of the phenomenon. The research conducted illustrates students’ motivation to learn English in the period of distant education and their perception of learning particular aspect of the language.
Alberto REGAGLIOLO, La tragedia greca per bambini - 345
Children at eight / nine years old do not have yet a complete and clear idea of the death; nevertheless, one way to approach them to reflect on this sensitive issue can be through literature, in particular with the Greek tragedy. Introducing the Greek tragedy already in primary school inevitably brings the child closer to the theme of the education of death and loss as well as addresses the issue of suffering. However, it is necessary to identify within the classical repertoire of Sophocles, Euripides and Aeschylus some positive characters who can guide children in understanding some adapted tragic moments. Institutions, teachers and associations are essential in accompanying children on this journey to discover death and mourning through the school curriculum and other alternative activities. Some teaching possibilities fall within multisensory, experiential and playful education. Here a proposal is presented by analyzing some elements of the Antigone tragedy to be put into practice in primary school.
LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Paweł WOJCIECHOWSKI, Andersen i Carofiglio. Literacko-filozoficzny portret człowieka i miasta - 363
The text presents selected images of Italian cities present in the novels of Hans Christian Andersen and Giacomo Carofiglio. Rome, Naples, Amalfi, Pompeii, and Bari were read here from two perspectives: bucolic and pessimistic, which allowed to recreate the authors' attitude towards the cultural phenomenon of the city. It was emphasized that the authors writing in the two early centuries: the nineteenth (Andersen) and the twenty-first (Carofiglio) – read the cities of Italy in parallel through experiences of individual sensuality, sensitivity, contemplation and perception. Literature material was also interpreted in the context of the philosophies of Pascal, Bergson, Nietzsche and Deleuze.
Hieronim CHOJNACKI, „Tłumacz między kulturami” – o Macieju Zarembie-Bielawskim - 379
The paper refers to this trend of hermeneutics, whose representatives understand the interpretation as "articulated understanding". The texting, including paraphrase, the translation of someone else's language, is a prerequisite for the existence of cultural space, so that a critical view and cognitive verification of another narrative is possible. In the case of Maciej Zaremba, we are dealing with a reporter who writes Swedish about Swedes as an outsider, that is – keeping the distance and ability to see what the Swedes do not want or cannot see with their own eyes. It explores the areas of action of the "Swedish norm", visible from the outside, invisible "from the inside", just as the recognition of otherness and a peculiar value of some culture is possible for foreigners. Natives themselves are not able to recognize their standards (also assess) without the participation of outsiders. For Zaremba, writing is an act of disagreement with the uncritical acceptance of otherness, while using critical negation language and analytical tools with a more conceited intention than an overtly damning one. In this new incarnation, the author himself calls himself a "translator between cultures", whose strength lies in the fact that he has retained the ability to marvel, to expand his imagination and to seek new language means, to clearly separate facts from opinions. It is a vision of a man building a bridge between two cultures, and his ideal is subjects of resistance and non-toxic communication standards are his ideal.
Yuliia KALIUZHNA, Витоки формування уявлення про концепт у філософії Людвіга Вітгенштейна - 395
The article attempts to investigate the origins of the idea of concept in the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein and attempts to apply the theoretical work of L. Wittgenstein in combination with literary and linguistic techniques and methods of analysis to consider concepts and their elements in literary works. The author revealed the possibility of embodying the multidimensional interaction of different conceptospheres in the work of fiction literature, and also revealed differences between the national and the author's concepts. Keywords: concept, conceptosphere, picture of the world, inoculture, "language game", "natural language", author's concept, national concept
Milena LESZMAN, A Question of Identity in the Life and Works of Sat-Okh (Long Feather) - 417
Sat-Okh (Stanisław Supłatowicz) was an Indian-Polish writer who popularised the culture of North American Indigenous People in Poland during the Cold War and afterwards. His incredible biography evokes questions about the nature of his identity. Born of an Indian chief and a Polish mother around 1922 in the territory of Alberta, Sat-Okh grew up as a Shawnee. When his mother decided to return to Poland, he followed, but until his death in Gdańsk in 2003, Sat-Okh consistently identified with his Indigenous heritage. During WWII he escaped from a train to Auschwitz and joined the AK (The Home Army). He became famous for numerous books and short stories about his life with the Indians, which were translated into many languages. He was also strongly involved in the Polish-Indian Movement and promoted the culture of his native ancestors. This paper aims to present the life and work of Sat-Okh with regard to his mysterious identity. Recently, there has been some doubt whether Sat-Okh's biography is genuine. However, I would like to argue that Long Feather's phenomenon proves the fact that regardless of whether he was a true Shawnee or not, Sat-Okh chose to identify himself as Indian and consistently presented himself as one. He taught Poles about Indian traditions and gained a tremendous respect which has lasted until today.
Review: Antologia polskiej poezji w Szwecji. Głosy poetek, wprowadzenie, wybór, opracowanie Ewa Teodorowicz-Hellman, Stockholm Slavic Papers 29, Stockholms Universitet Institutionen för Slaviska och Baltiska Språk, Finska, Nederlänska och Tyska, 2020, ss. 298.
Ateneum Philological Forum No. 1(7)2019 "Domains and Contexts"
Katarzyna Kukowicz-Żarska (Ed.), Ateneum-Szkoła Wyższa w Gdańsku
ISSN 2719-8537 (online) / ISSN 2353-2912 (print)
A point ranked journal (20 points) included in the point ranked journals list of 18 December 2019 position 27730.
(1-6) Foreword - 5
The aim of this paper is to check whether the information for colon cancer patients available on top websites devoted to this disease is comprehensible for the readers or whether, due to high saturation with special medical terms, it is beyond the recommended readability level of an average internet user. Two main criteria of analysis were involved in the study: readability and lexical sophistication. The methods used in the study include 8 readability tests (ARI, Colemen-Liau, New Dale-Chall, Flesch-Kincid, Fry, Gunning Fog, Raygor Estimate, and SMOG), TAALES software and Lexical Complexity Analyser used to examine syntactic and lexical parameters of texts, and a corpus-assisted web-based tool used for lexical sophistication called VocabProfile. The study has shown that none of the 30 websites under scrutiny meets the demand of the recommended readability level, and that higher lexical sophistication involves a lower readability level.
Olga BRONIŚ, Inventari consonantici dell’italiano e del polacco a confronto - 27
The goal of the present paper is to offer a comparative study of the consonantal phonological inventories of Italian and Polish. The first discrepancy between the two languages discussed in the paper is related to the fact that some Polish and Italian phonemes do not have any correspondents in the other language. The second issue addressed in this work is the fact that some Italian segments seem very similar to selected Polish sounds, and yet, as the paper shows, in some cases substantial differences need to be noted. The last issue presented in the paper concerns selected properties of Italian and Polish geminates.
Tomasz CISZEWSKI, Metrical conditioning of word-final devoicing in Polish - 43
The present paper investigates a segmental phenomenon traditionally referred to as word-final obstruent devoicing in Polish. It is generally assumed that the context in which it applies is solely related to the absolute word-final position before silence. By inference, full voicing of a wordfinal obstruent is retained only when (i) it is followed by a voiced segment (a vowel or a consonant) in an utterance or when (ii) it is appended with a suffix which begins with a vowel. In this research a different group of factors which trigger the process is explored, namely the position of the obstruent within the metrical foot. If, as argued by Harris (2009), noninitial position within the foot is a typical lenition site (contrary to Iverson and Salmons 2007) and if devoicing is regarded as a special manifestation of lenition (through information loss, similarly to vowel reduction), a purely segmental (contextual) conditioning for voicing retention in obstruents word-finally cannot be maintained.
Anna DASZKIEWICZ, Fake News als soziolinguistisches Phänomen - 59
This paper addresses the socio-linguistic phenomenon of fake news. The emphasis is put on the premises, impact, perception, reception, and further functioning of purposefully falsified information. The text provides both a theoretical basis as well as practical fields of its application.
Arkadiusz JANCZYŁO, A Linguistic Analysis of Cultural Content in French-English Translation of a Yoghurt Commercial - 75
Advertising translation is a multifaceted practice which poses specific challenges for translators that extend beyond sheer linguistic competence of the professionals involved in the process. Cross-cultural awareness and sensitivity are called for when dealing with translating commercial matter internationally and interculturally. This paper presents a comparative analysis of a TV commercial of natural yoghurt and its representation in two languages. The advert was originally created in French, subsequently translated and dubbed in English by a French-accent English speaker. The English version deviates slightly linguistically and culturally from its French counterpart. The notions of explicitation, equivalence, adaptation and localisation applied in this paper provide grounds for analysis of a range of translation decisions and strategies which allow to achieve similar advertising pragmatic effects as well as add extra dimensions that are absent in the source text.
Sławomir KOWALEWSKI, Medienlinguistische Analyse der Kommunikation in Livestreams von Computerspielen - 85
The main goal of this article is to linguistically analyse the livestream of computer games. The study has interdisciplinary nature – it is based mainly on media linguistics instruments. However, the paper also refers to certain aspects of text linguistics and, to a large degree, semiotics of multimodality. Livestreams are a relatively new media phenomenon and thus for linguists are unexplored and demand research. The following article will attempt to define as precisely as possible the concept of 'text' and 'medium' in a linguistic context. Furthermore, media information transfer during livestream will be analysed. Particular emphasis will be placed on to what extent the message and reception are supported by the phenomena of pluriand intermediality. The analysis is based on screenshots from the Internet platform Twitch.
Katarzyna KUKOWICZ-ŻARSKA, Zur Wirkung der Worte. Sprachliche Bewertungsmittel als Indikatoren der Wortkraft in der emotionsbezogenen NS-Sprache - 105
The subject of this publication is to investigate the power of words in a text and language in the context of evaluation. The author focuses on emphasizing the role of evaluation in the text and the relationship between the evaluation process and accompanying and/or resultant emotions. The evaluative language measures applied in the text under analysis are addressed on the basis of the strongly emotional German language of the National Socialism era. The paper pays particular attention to the influence of emotions, emotionally influenced language and the socio-cultural context on the recipient and his/her mental responses as well as his/her verbal and physical actions. Actions implemented through the text are perceived here through the prism of universal values, as well as through the prism of specific evaluative methods relevant to the applied evaluative language means.
Rafael de la Cruz LÓPEZ-CAMPOS BODINEAU, Deutsche Präpositionen als Träger von lexikalischen Informationen. Eine Segmentierung nach lexikalischen Autonomiekriterien - 123
This article is related to the study of the semantic load of the lexical category of prepositions. German prepositions, as in most Anglo-Germanic languages, are especially productive in the framework of two very specific syntactic functions: circumstantial complement and prepositional complement. Traditionally, in the context of the first one some type of semantic load is conferred on them, especially in cases where opposition pairs are available, while in the context of the second function they usually talk about uses of a purely conventional type with little lexical motivation. Through this article the possibility of relativizing this approach will be considered, and, thus, highlighting cases of prepositions with hardly any lexical load within the framework of a function as circumstantial complement, and, in the same way cases of prepositions with some kind of semantic value in the framework of the function as a repositional complement.
Katarzyna MAJDZIK PAPIĆ, Od męki translacji do piekła logosu. O przekładzie w „Przekładzie” Pabla De Santisa - 143
The article presents how the novel The Translation by Pablo De Santis reffers to the most important concepts of theory and philosophy of translation. Among these concepts the most significant are those which consider the boundaries and mechanisms of interpretation in the act of translation. These ideas are metaphorically expressed by the myth of the fall of the Tower of Babel. The interpretative context for the novel by De Santis is determined by the works of Jacques Derrida, Julia Kristeva and Hans-Georg Gadamer. An important research problem is also the relationship between the category of translation and the hybrid genre of the crime novel by De Santis.
Svitlana MATVIEIEVA, Критерії відбору та первинна обробка емпіричного матеріалу паралельного корпусу юридичних текстів - 167
The article deals with the formation of criteria for the primary selection of legal texts for the English-Ukrainian parallel corpus of legal texts. The author has developed a classification of legal texts on the basis of the style and text genres, taking into account the types of legal acts, and makes an attempt to combine legal and linguistic characteristics applicable to the classification of legal documents. The article proposes the structure of the metadata card for corpus texts (original and translation), which are tested on text samples. The need for metatext data and extra-linguistic information for working with corpus texts is substantiated in the article.
The study analyzes lexemes and word combinations of colloquial style, slang and low colloquial language, performs their comparative analysis at word level, looks into the transformational patterns that the structures undergo during literary translation into English and Russian, and discusses the advantages and flaws of the applied translation strategies through suggesting adequate translation solutions. In the article, the argument is made that the translation strategies of substandard lexis reflect the interdisciplinary nature of expressive meaning and connotation which can be conveyed differently through various language levels during literary translation.
Marian SZCZODROWSKI, Fremdsprachliche Lehr-Lern-Prozesse und Kommunikationsprozesse - 203
The issues presented in this article do not only refer to the substantive aspects of processes of teaching, learning and communication, but also to their close connections in teaching foreign languages. Therefore, on the one hand, the course of teaching and learning is viewed separately, and, on the other hand, their inseparable unity is established. Learning new perceptual foreignlanguage structures is seen as a multi-stage process which takes place not only in decoding but also in the construction of matrices in the foreign-language storage mechanism. All foreignlanguage activities relating to teaching and learning are based on communication, which runs parallel to glotto-didactic processes. Thus, the following results emerge for learners: known information structures function as means of communication and understanding, while new structures function as means of communication and teaching and learning.
The article deals with the most important relations between Foreign Language Didactics and the main theoretical models in modern linguistics, especially the Applied Linguistics of second- and foreign-language teaching. Theories and models of modern linguistics have often laid the theoretical foundations of foreign language teaching, as we can observe in the individual methods and learning techniques (from structuralism to generative grammar, communicativepragmatic turn of the 60s and 70s, cognitive linguistics and to F. Grucza's anthropocentric theory of languages). In this perspective, the purpose of this article is to raise and discuss the question of how modern linguistic theories can improve the effectiveness of language teaching.
Mariola WIERZBICKA, (Zeit)Befindlichkeit und partieller Gleichlauf in der Sprache. Eine Untersuchung zum Deutschen - 227
The paper discusses ways of expressing the temporal relations of partial simultaneity in adverbial clauses in the German language. Although the relations can be expressed by participle phrases, noun phrases, prepositional phrases and infinitive phrases, the adverbial clause is the most frequent means of expressing the relations. The temporal adverbial clause has an almost unlimited range of applications, which stretches from vaguely hinted relation to absolute necessity, and from general statements and clarifications to definite emotionally motivated utterances. Wherever there is an obvious connection between facts, events, actions, relations as well as personal will and feeling, it can be expressed by means of a temporal structure. The subject of the paper is the influence of conjunctions während, als, wenn, seit(dem) and solange on the time arrangement of situations introduced into the time clause and the main clause with regard to morphological, syntactic and semantic elements and dependence on the relation of the correspondence between events in the time clause and events in the main clause in German.
When looking at the relationship between substantive education and the pedagogical background of a teacher (foreign language teacher included) there has been an eternal disagreement both in the academia, as well as among prospective employers. The most essential controversy pertains to the degree of expertise a teacher should possess in the field they teach versus how much psycho-pedagogical and educational knowledge they should have and the mutual relationship of the two. Another area of dispute and debate within the teachers’ education specialism seems to occur between two parties: proponents of theoretical research and the narrow circle of practical education advocates. The empirical annex, which points to the level of vocational preparation of a language teacher, focuses on the choice of didactic activities, the quality of their execution, and the working conditions which are under a teacher’s control.
Alicja FREDO, Henryk OLSZEWSKI, Cognitive functioning of monolingual and bilingual adolescents: attention, semantic memory and self-efficacy - 257
This paper aims to discuss the impact of being monolingual or bilingual on cognitive functioning of an individual as well as its influence on their self-efficacy. The literature review points to certain trends in adults’ functioning; however, the study based on young adults and adolescents still displays avenues for elaborating on new correlations. There is a proven relation between cognitive processes and bilingualism; however, their relation to self-efficacy is still to be determined. In the study, adolescents were examined by means of three psychological tools focusing on attention span, verbal fluency and self-efficacy. In spite of the fact that major correlations appeared relatively similar, we observed certain correlations within some of the variables after conducting an in depth analysis of the results in the respective section.
Anna KULIŃSKA, Upgrading the language learning and teaching process for Zees - 267
The modern student is surrounded by technology, which results in their both social behaviours and their learning habits. Research indicates that although the attention span of modern reaches much lower levels than with previous generations, their ‘bursts’ of attention are more frequent and also their connecting and encoding abilities are more efficient. These changes in their cognitive functions should be answered by the adaptation if the teaching process in order to minimise the negative consequences of shorter attention span and maximise their potential.
The article constitutes the second part of a series of articles pertaining to the basic perspectives of integration in CLIL educational system. At the beginning, the author’s original concept of four perspectives of integration in CLIL was presented, ordered according to the student’s perspective, the present didactic and pastoral perspective, i.e. the teacher’s. In the subsequent part of the article the author discusses in detail the second perspective, as well as indicates the main aspects of didactic integration in CLIL: (1) by terminology, (2) by discourse, (3) by higher order processing tasks, (4) by intercultural comparison, (5) by authentic materials’ scaffolding. Finally, the conclusions are presented.
Katarzyna PAPAJA, Artur ŚWIĄTEK, Kamil MIELNIK, Deep learning (pogłębianie procesu uczenia się) z perspektywy analizy potrzeb studentów języka angielskiego jako obcego - 301
Although the term Deep Learning does not seem to be a new term in language learning, it attracted relatively little attention until just a few years ago. Different fields of study show that Deep Learning leverages a sophisticated process to learn multiple levels of abstraction from the data; however, in languages, the term has been widely accepted as the key concept in the transformation and personalisation of the learning process. In this paper, we take the definition of Deep Learning, and we corroborate the theories by use of the study which aims to assess the needs of students in the context of language exercises, resources as well as tools and modern technological solutions. A proper understanding of Deep Learning is necessary to examine the potential benefits for students and the broadly defined society. Therefore, the essence of the research is to obtain the answers to what is important in the education of modern foreign languages and also what the teacher’s role is. A quantitative study was conducted on 441 students of English Philology. The results of the needs analysis of foreign language students allow for a greater understanding of their expectations towards themselves and their teachers; additionally, to answer the question about what kind of education recipients they are and whether they are active participants in the whole educational process.
LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Karolina JANOWSKA, Amor udrí – la poesía cortesana árabe en la Península Ibérica - 323
The poetry of Arab-Andalusian poets is a bridge between Eastern and Western culture. Its roots date back to the sixth century, when the first Bedouin songs resounded in the limitless areas of the Arabian desert. His echoes resounded in the poetry of Provençal troubadours. Traces of this poetry can be found in the works of Renaissance poets, including Petrarc. Elements of Andalusian poetry were also visible in the poetry of the Spanish court since the 16th century. The characteristic poetic forms still appeared in 20th century poetry – at least one of the most outstanding Spanish poets, Federico Garcia Llorca, reached for it. Its greatest prosperity was in the 10th and 11th centuries, and among the outstanding Andalusian poets were both men and women. The main motive of this poetry was unfulfilled love, which remained the dominant element of modern European court poetry.
The American novelist Jonathan Franzen has always shown a great interest for the environmental problems, mainly in his masterpiece Freedom (2011) and in the essay “My Bird Problem” (2005). Freedom, which recounts three decades of the Berglund family, sees its main character dealing with the environmental themes for his work. Walter is a lawyer who is actively engaged in environmental causes, but the one that occupies most of the novel, is the support of an organization called “Cerulean Mountain Trust”, which aims at saving the cerulean warblers, a small species of songbird, creating a “birds’ sanctuary” in West Virginia. The honorable cause is actually moved by Vin Haven, a Texan millionaire tycoon who wants to implement an extractive coal strip mining operation and afterwards build the birds’ sanctuary as a remedial move. The aim of this paper is to analyze the novel to extract Franzen’s fictional depiction of actual environmental crimes in order to shed light on harmful practices such as the mountaintop removal.
Grzegorz MOROZ, Provençal Landscapes in Aldous Huxley’s Fiction and Non-Fiction - 357
The paper focuses on the analysis of different ways in which Aldous Huxley chose to represent Provençal landscapes in his novels, such as Eyeless in Gaza or Time Must Have a Stop, as well as in his essays, such as “Music at Night” or “The Olive Tree”. The analytical tools which have been developed by scholars of the so called ‘spatial turn’ have been used (particularly the notion of ‘polysensory landscapes’), while Huxley’s representations of Provence are considered in the context of Aldous Huxley’s biography and the political situation in France in particular and in the world in general in the 1930s.
Tymon ZIELIŃSKI, Izabela KOTYŃSKA-ZIELIŃSKA, Ewa PIECHOWSKA, Sustainable Development-utopia or our chance? Some thoughts on how to promote the SDG idea. Polish case study - 371
In this work we discuss the importance of the application of sustainable development goals (SDGs) to all aspects which are related to the ocean. We argue that the ocean is interconnected and processes which are related to the ocean have direct impact on all SDGs, and any action undertaken within any of the SDGs will have an impact on the ocean. We believe that widely understood education of societies can ensure the proper understanding and hence implementation of the sustainable development idea throughout the world.
About autors - 381
Ateneum Philological Forum, No. 1(6)2018 "Search and Research"
Katarzyna Kukowicz-Żarska (Ed.), Ateneum-Szkoła Wyższa w Gdańsku
ISSN 2353-2912 (print)
(1-8) Foreword - 5
Mercedes ARRIAGA FLOREZ, Daniele CERRATO, Alessia DELLA ROCCA, Interlinguistic crosses and transextuality in María Rosal - 11
The objective of this article is to analyse the different textual strategies with which María Rosal Nadales makes a transtextual construction in her anthology "Al este del andén". The use of this technique responds to different reasons: the active role that is assigned to the reader and the playful character in which the writing is framed, the tribute to and poetic concordance with other authors, the surprise effect and the irony, the postmodern fusion of classical culture and popular culture and, finally, the ethical-aesthetic commitment to point out contradictions, create new metaphors and encourage the reader's reflection together with new ways of thinking, especially around the figure of the woman poet and the representation of the female body.
The subject of the study is German traces in Melchior Wańkowicz’s reportages published in the “Anoda i katoda” [“The Anode and Cathode”] series, in the part titled “Kraj lat dziecinnych” [The Land of Childhood]. This paper presents the vocabulary of German origin and Polish vocabulary referring to Germany and discusses common words and proper names, mostly of German origin, including quotations and lexis more or less assimilated in the Polish language. Appellatives are classified into parts of speech. The prevailing group of proper names comprises surnames, divided into two groups: German surnames and Polonised surnames. Another issue discussed in this article refers to the ways in which the presented vocabulary underwent Polonisation. Additionally, an interesting question is why the author, born in the Russian partition territory, uses so many words related to Germany. Wańkowicz refers to history, which justifies lexical items of German provenance, e.g. Ober-Ost. The presence of numerous surnames of German origin may result from Wańkowicz’s memories, e.g. Gebethner and Wolff are publishers of his story for children, and the surname Einstein is referred to in relation to Warsaw. As for the presence of appellatives, they were probably well-assimilated and frequently used, since most of them are not distinguished in any way in the text by the author. Some of the above-quoted Germanisms (appellatives and proper names) were Polonised in terms of vowels and consonants and through the application of Polish wordforming suffixes.
Arkadiusz JANCZYŁO, In search of image manipulation mechanisms in a public person’s speech interpretation – a case study - 37
This paper presents a qualitative analysis of a public person’s speech with its language and translation, and the way they can be manipulated to create a public image. As a public person, Lech Wałęsa has been subject to public scrutiny politically and ideologically ever since he became involved in public affairs as a trade union member and activist. Later, as a presidential candidate in the first democratic presidential election in post-communist Poland which he won in 1990, his publicity soared. Consequently, with his popularity came a heavier price of fame; he was subjected to strong criticism, and the way he spoke became a source of jokes and mocking nationwide. Public image is what others receive and read us by. It is an amalgamation of several factors – language being one of the major ones in creating one’s identity.
Agnieszka ŁAZOR, Influencia de las lenguas prerromanas en la lengua española - 47
Before the romanisation, the Iberian Peninsula was inhabited communities speaking distinct languages with Latin used as their official language. However, the contact of local languages with Latin has left the residue preserved in modern Spanish. This work will present certain features of Spanish which may be attributed to the influence of pre-Roman languages.
Katarzyna KUKOWICZ-ŻARSKA, O wartościowaniu i prawdzie w języku i tekście. Język narodowego socjalizmu w perspektywie językoznawczej i socjokulturowej - 61
The subject of this publication are linguistic means of evaluation in the text and language, discussed on the basis of the German language of national socialism. The text and its role are perceived here through the prism of values in a universal context, and perhaps first of all through the prism of linguistic means of evaluation represented in it. As ratings are usually assigned to selected elements of reality created with language in order to not only reflect one’s attitude towards these elements but also to implicitly effect a given or desired mental or physical reaction in the recipient of the language message, it should not be surprising that the language of national socialism is examined here in the linguistic and sociocultural perspective. The combination of national values important for the whole community and the official interpretation of truth and non-truth was a priority in the national socialist era. This article deals with the problem related to the interpretation of appropriate situations and their meanings considered as correct from the perspective of the language of values and issues related to manipulation and persuasion.
The aim of the paper is to answer the question what was the Andrzej Polkowski’s intent of using domestication and foreignisation strategies in indigenous Harry Potter series translation. Selected fragments of the novel are referring to the widely understood ‘food’ category and are compared in terms of language and culture. It is known that the Polish translator extends (but does he always domesticate?) the world presented in the novel to the reader’s country. However, it is really ambigious, how these extensions affect the interpretation of Polish recipient.
Since constructed languages have recently been brought into focus by their prominent presence in film and television production, they have also become more attractive for academic research: several compendia, monographs, and articles have been published on the topic of classification and analysis of conlangs. Glossopoeia of Hildegard of Bingen and Suzette Haden Elgin is unique among the plethora of constructed languages in several aspects: elusive classification, unusual lexical focus, high level of completeness, and female authorship. The article investigates possible classifications of lingua ignota and Láadan, and their grammatical, lexical, and phonological characteristics. It also aims to establish the success of the languages measured against their goal stated or implied by their inventresses and the objectives generally set for constructed languages.
Agata ZAPŁOTNA, La vitalità del congiuntivo nel linguaggio televisivo - 113
The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between television language and spoken Italian, applying the problem of the subjunctive as a reference point, frequently replaced by the indicative in colloquial contexts. Despite the fact that television language is now considered a reflection of Italian varieties and spoken-spoken language, there is still a heterogeneous language of the type transmitted. As such, it constitutes a set of various styles and registers, characterized by different linguistic phenomena from those of unattended speech. The effect of the study is to show that although in the field of Italian diametric varieties television language has more in common with spoken than written Italian, the dynamics of the processes that take place in both are still not the same.
Anna HERRA, Anna KULIŃSKA, The role of feedback in the process of learning English as a foreign language - 127
The aim of the paper is to answer the question of what is the role of Feedback in the process of learning English as a foreign language. Feedback is an important element of student-teacher interaction in the classroom. Even experienced teachers admit that it is beneficial to put oneself in the student’s position in order to understand their individual needs, and hence adjust the instruction, assessment and feedback moves to aid language acquisition. Since errors are an unavoidable part of the learning process and teachers feel compelled to address students’ spoken errors, it seems significant to consider how the learners perceive the feedback they receive.
Karolina JANOWSKA, Evolución de la metodologia de la enseñanza de las lenguas extranjeras - 145
This article reviews the evolution of the most popular methods of teaching foreign languages in Europe. The history of language teaching was marked by continuous methodological changes resulting from the search for an ideal teaching method and various language currents and psychological approaches prevailing at the time of their occurrence. This discipline went through various stages, the most significant of which took place in the twentieth century, to develop a new method for more effective learning, which led to the development of a methodology that would provide clarification of answers to questions raised in the field of language learning. In recent years, what has been distinguished is a task-based language teaching field that provides students with ideal opportunities for developing communication skills and effective learning.
Janusz KAWKA, Identyfikacja i klasyfikacja błędów językowych na lektoracie języka niemieckiego - 159
Knowledge of foreign languages constitutes one of the key competencies amongst graduates of the Bachelor of Economics. In the era of globalisation, the importance of a high level of proficiency in foreign languages has become self-evident. The empirical part of this article is devoted to the analysis of the most common language mistakes committed by first-year students of the B1 group of Marketing and Management at the University of Economics in Krakow. A portion of the final exams submitted by a group of 13 students has been analyzed. The study focuses on the identification and classification of errors and presents the frequency distribution, as percentages, of errors in individual categories. The author's intention is not to indicate the causes of errors and their assessment, but to present the problems faced by students of the Bachelor of Economics, who learn ‘business language’, which a specialism within the German language studies. The results of the study might act as a starting point for the development of appropriate educational materials to support the process of teaching a wide variety of German language courses.
Renata MAJEWSKA, Autonomia w klasach dwujęzycznych: sprawozdanie z badań jakościowych - 171
The aim of the article is to reflect on the autonomy development in the CLIL context in Poland. The research question is: How does the task-oriented didactics – using the example of comparison – influence the development of learners’ personal communicative competence in the conditions of semi-autonomy in the CLIL system? The article constitutes a short qualitative research report with the description of its educational context and theoretical background related to autonomy in CLIL. It also presents aims of the research, its course, the data collection techniques, as well as analysis and general conclusions.
Katarzyna WALKOWSKA, Interkulturelles Lernen und Lehren im Fremdsprachenunterricht – warum, wozu und wie? - 187
The aim of this article is to discuss the problem of intercultural competence and communication. The author wants to draw attention to the phenomenon of the concept of culture and its role in the process of developing intercultural communication and intercultural competence.
Marta ZUBACZ, Maurizio BONINO, La leggenda del regno del Prete Gianni - 205
The reign of Prester John (Prete Gianni), one of the most interesting legends of the Middle Ages, can ignite the imagination even today. It is not surprising that the eyes and hearts of the monarchs and popes were facing east, where they sought their legendary kingdom characterized by unimaginable power, wealth, miracles and at the same time a pure Christian life.
Dorota SKOWROŃSKA, Report on the Language Show, London, 9-11 November 2018 - 225
About autors - 229
Forum Filologiczne Ateneum - Ateneum Philological Forum
ISSN 2719-8537 (online) / ISSN 2353-2912 (print)
Editor-in-chief, Scientific editor
Dr Katarzyna Kukowicz-Żarska, Prof A-SW, Ateneum-University (Poland)
Prof. Mercedes Arriaga Florez, University of Seville (Spain)
Dr hab. Anna Bączkowska, prof. UG, University of Gdańsk (Poland)
Dr Daniele Cerrato, University of Seville (Spain)
Dr hab. Tomasz Ciszewski, prof. UG, University of Gdańsk (Poland)
Prof. Desmond Graham, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)
Prof. dr hab. Henryk Kardela, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin (Poland)
Prof. Nataliya Lemish, National Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Kyiv (Ukraine)
Prof. Edoardo Lombardi Vallauri, Roma Tre University (Italy)
Prof. Rafael Lopez-Campos Bodineau, University of Seville (Spain)
Prof. Luis Luque Toro, Universita Ca’ Foscari, Venezia (Italy)
Prof. dr hab. Grażyna Łopuszańska-Kryszczuk, University of Gdańsk (Poland)
Prof. Bruce Duncan MacQueen, University of Tulsa (United States)
Prof. Antonio Pamies Bertran, University of Granada (Spain)
Prof. Manana Rusieshvili-Cartledge, Tbilisi State University (Georgia)
Prof. dr hab. Piotr Stalmaszczyk, University of Łódź (Poland)
Dr hab. Jacek Szczepaniak, prof. UKW, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz (Poland)
Prof. Dario Tomasello, University of Messina (Italy)
Prof. Antonio Raul de Toro Santos, University of A Coruña (Spain)
Prof. Giedre Valunaite Oleskeviciene, Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania)
Prof. Maria Rosaria Vitti-Alexander, College Nazareth-Rochester (United States)
Prof. dr hab. Mariola Wierzbicka, University of Rzeszów (Poland)
Ateneum Philological Forum 1(8)2020
Prof. Mercedes Arriaga Florez; Linda Balistreri, dr hab. Anna Bączkowska, prof. UG;
dr hab. Hieronim Chojnacki, prof. A-SW; dr Daniele Cerrato; dr hab. Tomasz Ciszewski, prof. UG;
dr Javier Fernández-Sánchez; dr hab. Maria Groenwald, prof. UG;
dr Adam Jagiełło-Rusiłowski; dr hab. Paweł Jędrzejko; dr hab. Joanna Kuć, Prof. UwB;
dr Anna Kulińska; prof. Nataliya Lemish; dr Milena Leszman; prof. Rafael Lopez-Campos Bodineau;
prof. dr hab. Grażyna Łopuszańska-Kryszczuk; Prof. Bruce Duncan MacQueen;
dr Maurizio Mazzini; dr Mariia Onyshchuk; dr Dariusz Pestka; prof. dr hab. Barbara Sadownik;
prof. dr hab. Marian Szczodrowski; dr Fernando Torrens; dr Paweł Wojciechowski
Ateneum Philological Forum 1(7)2019
dr hab. Tomasz Ciszewski, prof. UG; dr hab. Maria Groenwald, prof. UG; dr Adam Jagiełło-Rusiłowski;
dr hab. Joanna Kuć, Prof. UwB; dr Anna Kulińska; prof. Nataliya Lemish;
prof. Rafael Lopez-Campos Bodineau; prof. dr hab. Grażyna Łopuszańska-Kryszczuk;
dr Maurizio Mazzini; dr Mariia Onyshchuk; dr Dariusz Pestka; dr hab. Arkadiusz Rojczyk, prof. UŚ;
dr Krzysztof Rudolf; dr hab. Sylwia Skuza, prof. UMK; dr hab. Małgorzata Spychała-Wawrzyniak, prof. UAM;
prof. dr hab. Marian Szczodrowski; dr Cecylia Tatoj; prof. Antonio Raul de Toro Santos;
dr Tetiana Tsepeniuk; prof. dr hab. Mariola Wierzbicka; dr Bartosz Wiśniewski
Ateneum Philological Forum 1(6)2018
Prof. Rafael Lopez-Campos Bodineau, Universidad de Seville (Spain)
ISSN: 2353-2912 eISSN: 2719-8537 DOI: 10.36575/2353-2912
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